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# Calculation Of Effect Of Changing Ad On National Income Using The Multiplier

➡️ The AD approach to national income determination is based on the idea that total spending in an economy is equal to total output. This approach uses the aggregate demand (AD) curve to measure total spending in the economy.
➡️ The income approach to national income determination is based on the idea that total income in an economy is equal to total output. This approach uses the sum of all incomes earned by households, businesses, and the government to measure total income in the economy.
➡️ The multiplier process is used to calculate the effect of a change in spending on the level of national income. The multiplier is the ratio of the change in national income to the change in spending. It is used to measure the effect of an increase or decrease in spending on the level of national income.

### How does a change in aggregate demand affect national income?

A change in aggregate demand (AD) affects national income through the multiplier effect. The multiplier effect is the process by which an initial change in AD leads to a larger change in national income. This occurs because the initial change in AD leads to a change in production, which in turn leads to a change in income, which then leads to a further change in AD, and so on. The size of the multiplier effect depends on the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) and the marginal propensity to save (MPS).

### What is the multiplier effect?

The multiplier effect is the process by which an initial change in aggregate demand (AD) leads to a larger change in national income. This occurs because the initial change in AD leads to a change in production, which in turn leads to a change in income, which then leads to a further change in AD, and so on. The size of the multiplier effect depends on the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) and the marginal propensity to save (MPS).

### How is the multiplier effect calculated?

The multiplier effect is calculated by dividing 1 by the marginal propensity to save (MPS). The MPS is the proportion of an increase in income that is saved rather than spent. The higher the MPS, the lower the multiplier effect. For example, if the MPS is 0.2, then the multiplier effect is 1/0.2 = 5. This means that a 1% increase in AD will lead to a 5% increase in national income.

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