top of page

A level and O level ECONOMICS 

Access 400+ Economics Essays With the Economics Study Pack 
(Free previews below!)

What if you could score the highest grades possible on your economics essays? Subscribe and get access to a collection of high-quality A+ economics essays.

  • Well structured

  • Simple and clear english

  • Diagrams included where relevant

  • For A level, AS level, GCSEs and O level.

Central Bank's Limit on Commercial Banks' Lending

Discuss whether or not a central bank should limit the amount commercial banks can lend to its customers.


Macroeconomic Factors and Policies

Frequently asked question



Use logical and coherent transitions between paragraphs and sections.

➡Title: The Role of Central Banks in Limiting Commercial Bank Lending: A Balanced Perspective
🍃Introduction: Central banks play a crucial role in ensuring the stability and soundness of a country's financial system. One of their tools is the regulation of commercial bank lending. This essay will examine both sides of the argument regarding whether or not a central bank should limit the amount that commercial banks can lend to their customers. We will explore the potential advantages and disadvantages of such limits, considering their impact on individual borrowers, the overall economy, and the financial system as a whole.
I. Reasons for Limiting Commercial Bank Lending:
➡️1. Control Over Excessive Borrowing: A central bank may implement lending limits to prevent excessive borrowing and the subsequent accumulation of unsustainable debt. Unrestrained lending could lead individuals to borrow beyond their means, resulting in financial instability and potential defaults.
➡️2. Mitigating Financial Risks: By imposing limits on lending, a central bank can reduce the risk of banks collapsing due to a high number of non-performing loans. This, in turn, safeguards the stability of the financial system and prevents disruptions to the broader economy.
➡️3. Managing Aggregate Demand and Inflation: Limits on bank lending can help control aggregate demand in the economy. If borrowing is excessive, it can lead to inflationary pressures. By restricting lending, the central bank can manage inflation and ensure price stability, contributing to sustainable economic growth.
➡️4. Improving Current Account Position: Restricting lending by commercial banks may reduce overall spending, including spending on imports. This can help improve the current account position of the country's balance of payments, contributing to a more favorable external trade balance.
II. Considerations Against Limiting Commercial Bank Lending:
➡️1. Impact on Vulnerable Individuals: Restrictive lending limits may hinder access to credit for individuals who rely on loans for essential needs such as food or education. In such cases, limiting borrowing could exacerbate poverty and inequality, particularly for those already financially marginalized.
➡️2. Potential Economic Contraction: Imposing strict limits on commercial bank lending may impede the growth and expansion of businesses. Restricted access to credit could hinder investment and entrepreneurship, potentially leading to lower economic growth and job creation.
➡️3. Discouraging Foreign Investment: Excessive limitations on lending may discourage multinational corporations (MNCs) from establishing operations in the country. Reduced access to credit could deter foreign investors who rely on bank financing, thereby limiting the potential benefits of foreign direct investment (FDI).
➡️4. Counteracting Economic Stimulus: During periods of economic downturn or recession, limiting bank lending could undermine efforts to stimulate the economy. Lower interest rates resulting from unlimited loans can support economic growth by encouraging borrowing, investment, and consumption.
➡️5. Potential Rise of Unregulated Lenders: Strict lending limits may inadvertently drive individuals towards unregulated lenders, exposing them to exploitative practices and further debt burdens. This can create additional social and financial risks, particularly for vulnerable segments of society.
👉Conclusion: The question of whether a central bank should limit the amount that commercial banks can lend is complex and multifaceted. While lending limits can help control excessive borrowing, reduce financial risks, manage inflation, and improve external trade balances, they also have potential drawbacks. Limiting lending may hinder access to credit for individuals, impede economic growth, deter foreign investment, and undermine economic stimulus efforts. Striking the right balance is essential, considering the specific economic context, the vulnerability of borrowers, and the overall goals of financial stability, sustainable growth, and societal well-being.


I. 🍃Introduction
- Definition of central bank
- Importance of controlling commercial bank lending

II. Reasons why central bank should control commercial bank lending (up to ➡️5 marks)
- Unlimited loans could encourage people to borrow too much
- Borrowers may get into debt and default on loans
- Bank collapses could harm the economy
- Limiting lending could control aggregate demand and reduce inflation
- Limiting lending could improve the current account position on the balance of payments

III. Reasons why central bank should not control commercial bank lending (up to ➡️5 marks)
- Some people may not have sufficient purchasing power without loans
- Limiting loans to firms could cause unemployment and restrict economic growth
- MNCs may be discouraged from setting up in the country
- Limiting lending during a recession could lead to job losses
- Unlimited loans could lower interest rates and increase economic growth

IV. 👉Conclusion
- Balancing the benefits and drawbacks of controlling commercial bank lending
- Importance of considering the state of the economy and potential consequences for different groups of people.


Up to ➡️5 marks for why it should: A function of a central bank maybe to control commercial bank lending -. Unlimited loans could encourage people to borrow too much - they may get into debt -. Some of the borrowers may not be able to pay back the loans - this could result in the banks collapsing - this could stop the economy working effectively -. A limit on the amount lent could control total (aggregate) demand - and reduce inflation -. A limit on bank lending could reduce spending on imports - this could improve the current account position on the balance of payments -.
Up to ➡️5 marks for why it should not: Some people who cannot borrow may not have sufficient purchasing power to afford e.g. an adequate amount of food/education for their children - move into poverty -. Limiting loans to firms may cause some to close - causing unemployment -. Some firms may not be able to expand - restricting economic growth -. The limit may discourage MNCs from setting up in the country - foregoing the benefits MNCs may bring -. State of economy - if in recession - limiting lending by banks could lead to loss of jobs -. Unlimited loans could reduce the interest rate - this could increase economic growth/lower unemployment - May force some of the poor to borrow from unregulated lenders - causing them to get into further debt -.




Halftone Image of a Hand

The above material is protected and is not to be copied.

bottom of page