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Economic Benefits of Building New Cities

Discuss whether or not building a new city will benefit an economy.

Category:

Economic Growth and Development

Frequently asked question

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Answer

Use logical reasoning to defend your arguments.

➡Title: The Economic Implications of Building a New City: A Critical Analysis
🍃Introduction: The decision to build a new city carries significant economic implications. While it may offer potential benefits such as job creation, improved housing, attracting multinational corporations (MNCs), and generating higher tax revenue, there are also potential drawbacks, including opportunity costs, environmental concerns, resistance to relocation, inflationary pressures, and resource depletion. This essay aims to critically analyze the economic effects of building a new city, considering both the potential benefits and drawbacks.
Benefits of Building a New City:
➡️1. Job Creation and Reduced Unemployment: Constructing a new city leads to the creation of numerous jobs, ranging from construction workers to urban planners and administrators. This influx of employment opportunities can help reduce unemployment rates, leading to greater economic participation and productivity.
➡️2. Improved Housing and Living Standards: The construction of a new city often involves better housing infrastructure. This can alleviate overcrowding and homelessness issues, improving the living standards and overall well-being of residents. Enhanced housing options can also attract skilled workers and promote social stability.
➡️3. Attraction of Multinational Corporations: The establishment of a new city with improved facilities and infrastructure can be appealing to multinational corporations seeking to expand or relocate. The presence of MNCs can bring in investments, technology transfers, and knowledge spillovers, boosting economic growth and fostering innovation in the region.
➡️4. Increased Tax Revenue for Government Spending: A new city generates additional tax revenue for the government. This revenue can be utilized to fund public services, such as education and healthcare, thus contributing to social development and the overall welfare of citizens.
Drawbacks of Building a New City:
➡️1. Opportunity Cost and Budgetary Constraints: Building a new city requires substantial financial resources and entails an opportunity cost. The funds used for city construction could have been allocated to other pressing areas, such as improving education and healthcare systems. Consequently, this may result in budget deficits and a diversion of resources away from critical sectors.
➡️2. Environmental Externalities: The construction and operation of a new city can impose negative externalities on the environment. Urban development may lead to habitat destruction, pollution, and increased carbon emissions, contributing to environmental degradation and climate change. These costs must be carefully considered and mitigated to ensure sustainable development.
➡️3. Reluctance to Relocate and Underutilized Facilities: The success of a new city depends on attracting people and businesses to relocate. However, resistance to relocation, attachment to existing communities, and the potential underutilization of new facilities pose challenges. If the new city fails to attract sufficient population and economic activity, the investments made may go to waste.
➡️4. Inflationary Pressures and Price Effects: Building a new city can lead to inflationary pressures, particularly when the economy is already operating near full employment. The increased demand for labor and resources may drive up wages and input costs, thereby causing cost-push inflation. Furthermore, the development of new infrastructure and services can push up prices, affecting the affordability of goods and services for residents.
➡️5. Depletion of Natural Resources and Increased Dependency on Imports: The construction and operation of a new city require substantial amounts of raw materials and natural resources. This can lead to resource depletion, ecological imbalances, and increased reliance on imports. Such dependencies may have adverse economic consequences, including vulnerability to global price fluctuations and trade imbalances.
👉Conclusion: Building a new city involves a complex set of economic considerations. While there are potential benefits such as job creation, improved housing, attracting MNCs, and generating tax revenue, these must be weighed against the opportunity costs, environmental impacts, resistance to relocation, inflationary pressures, and resource depletion. Policymakers must carefully evaluate these factors and implement appropriate measures to maximize the potential benefits while minimizing the drawbacks.

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I. 🍃Introduction
- Brief explanation of the topic
- Thesis statement

II. Positive impacts of building new infrastructure
- Creation of jobs
- Reduction of unemployment
- Increase in total demand and economic growth
- Higher income and less poverty
- Better housing and living standards
- Attraction of MNCs
- Higher tax revenue for government spending on other objectives

III. Negative impacts of building new infrastructure
- Opportunity cost and budget deficit
- External costs and damage to the environment
- Wasted facilities due to lack of demand
- Inflation and cost-push inflation
- Depletion of natural resources and increased dependence on imports

IV. Case study: The impact of building a new airport
- Positive and negative impacts on the local economy
- Analysis of the costs and benefits
- Comparison with other infrastructure projects

V. 👉Conclusion
- Summary of the main points
- Restatement of the thesis
- Final thoughts and recommendations.

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Up to ➡️4 marks for why it might:
• Jobs will be created - reduce unemployment - higher total demand / economic growth - creating higher income / less poverty -.
• Better housing may be constructed - overcrowding may be reduced / less homelessness - living standards may rise -.
• MNCs may be attracted into the country - by improved facilities -.
• Results in higher tax revenue - which government can spend on other objectives e.g. education and health -.
Up to ➡️4 marks for why it might not:
• It will involve an opportunity cost - money spent/resources used could have been used to e.g. improve education and healthcare - may cause a budget deficit -.
• It may cause external costs - e.g. damage the environment -.
• People and firms may not want to move - new facilities will be wasted -.
• Causes inflation - if already at or close to full employment -.
• Pushes up prices - causing cost-push inflation -.
• Depletes natural resources / raw materials - more dependent on imports -.

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