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Population Problems in Developing vs. Developed Countries
Discuss how population problems in developing countries may differ from those in developed countries.
Demographic Factors and Population
Frequently asked question
Use economic graphs or diagrams to illustrate relationships between variables.
Population problems in developing countries can differ from those in developed countries in various ways. Let's analyze some of these differences:
Possible problems in developing countries:
➡️1. High Population Growth Rate: Many developing countries experience a high population growth rate. This can put significant pressure on limited resources such as food, water, housing, and infrastructure. The rapid population growth may outpace the country's ability to provide essential services and meet the basic needs of its citizens.
➡️2. High Birth Rate: Developing countries often have higher birth rates compared to developed countries. This can result in a higher dependency ratio, where a larger proportion of the population consists of children and non-working dependents. This places a strain on the working-age population and can limit economic growth and development. Additionally, resources that could have been allocated for economic investments may need to be directed towards providing for the growing population's needs.
➡️3. High Infant Mortality Rate: In many developing countries, inadequate healthcare systems and limited access to quality healthcare contribute to a higher infant mortality rate. This not only leads to loss of life but also affects the overall well-being and quality of life within these countries.
➡️4. Net Emigration: Some developing countries experience net emigration, where a significant number of individuals leave the country to seek better opportunities elsewhere. This can result in a brain drain, where skilled workers and professionals leave, depriving the country of valuable human capital and hindering its economic development.
Possible problems in developed countries:
➡️1. Ageing Population: Developed countries often face the challenge of an ageing population due to declining birth rates and increasing life expectancy. This demographic shift results in a higher proportion of elderly individuals compared to the working-age population, increasing the dependency ratio. The ageing population puts pressure on social security systems, healthcare systems, and pension schemes, leading to increased costs and potential strains on public finances.
➡️2. Net Immigration: Developed countries may experience net immigration, where individuals from other countries migrate in search of better opportunities. While immigration can contribute to cultural diversity and address labor market needs, it can also create challenges. It may result in increased competition for resources, strain social services, and create tensions related to cultural integration and social cohesion.
➡️3. Less Severe Problems: Developed countries, generally, have better access to healthcare, education, and infrastructure, which can mitigate some of the population-related challenges. Longer life expectancy and lower fertility rates help to maintain a more balanced population size and reduce the risk of overpopulation.
It is important to note that these population problems are not exclusive to developing or developed countries, and there can be variations within each category. Additionally, population issues are complex and interconnected with social, economic, and environmental factors, requiring comprehensive and context-specific approaches to address them effectively.
A. Definition of developing and developed countries
B. Importance of understanding the problems faced by these countries
II. Possible problems of developing countries
A. High population growth rate
➡️1. Pressure on resources
B. High birth rate
➡️1. Increased dependency ratio
➡️2. Reduced size of the labour force
➡️3. Use of resources for feeding the population
C. High infant mortality rate
➡️1. Lower quality of life
D. Net emigration
➡️1. Loss of skilled workers
III. Possible problems of developed countries
A. Decreasing death rate/falling birth rate
➡️1. Ageing population
➡️2. Increased dependency ratio
➡️3. Increased cost of pensions/health care
B. Net immigration
➡️1. Pressure on resources
➡️2. Mismatch between skills of immigrants and job vacancies
C. Less severe problems compared to developing countries
➡️1. Longer life expectancy
➡️2. Less risk of overpopulation
A. Recap of the problems faced by developing and developed countries
B. Importance of addressing these problems for global development.
Up to ➡️5 marks for the possible problems of developing countries: Some developing countries have a high population growth rate - this may put pressure on resources -. Some developing countries have a high birth rate - this increases the dependency ratio - and may reduce the size of the labour force - and may result in products/resources that might have been used to increase living standards/economic growth being used to e.g. feed the higher population -. Some developing countries have a high infant mortality rate - lower quality of life -. Some developing countries experience net emigration - may lose skilled workers -.
Up to ➡️5 marks for the possible problems of developed countries: Some developed countries have a decreasing death rate/falling birth rate - and so an ageing population - increase dependency ratio - increase cost of pensions/health care -. Some developed countries experience net immigration - this may pressure on resources - may be a mismatch between skills of immigrants and job vacancies -. Problems may be less severe in developed countries - longer life expectancy/less risk of overpopulation -. Credit but do not expect relevant reference to the concept of optimum population.