➡️ External economies refer to the economic benefits that arise from the interaction of different firms and industries in a given region. These economies can be generated through the sharing of resources, knowledge, and technology, as well as through the development of specialized labor markets.
➡️ Economic growth is the increase in the production of goods and services over a period of time. It is measured by the increase in real GDP (gross domestic product) or real GNP (gross national product). Economic growth is driven by increases in productivity, which is the ability of a firm or industry to produce more output with the same amount of inputs.
➡️ External economies can contribute to economic growth by providing firms and industries with access to resources, knowledge, and technology that they would not have access to otherwise. This can lead to increased productivity and, in turn, increased economic growth.
What factors influence exchange rates?
Exchange rates are influenced by a variety of factors, including interest rates, inflation rates, political stability, and economic growth. For example, if a country has high interest rates, it may attract foreign investors, which can increase demand for its currency and cause its exchange rate to rise.
How do exchange rates affect international trade?
Exchange rates can have a significant impact on international trade. When a country's currency appreciates, its exports become more expensive and its imports become cheaper. This can lead to a decrease in exports and an increase in imports, which can negatively affect a country's trade balance. Conversely, when a country's currency depreciates, its exports become cheaper and its imports become more expensive, which can lead to an increase in exports and a decrease in imports.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of a fixed exchange rate system?
A fixed exchange rate system can provide stability and predictability for businesses and investors, as it eliminates the uncertainty associated with fluctuating exchange rates. However, it can also limit a country's ability to respond to economic shocks, as it may be unable to adjust its exchange rate to reflect changing economic conditions. Additionally, maintaining a fixed exchange rate can require significant government intervention, which can be costly and may limit a country's ability to pursue other economic policies.