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Economics notes


➡️ Fiscal policies, such as taxation and government spending, can affect the current account by influencing the level of domestic demand and the level of imports.
➡️ Monetary policies, such as changes in interest rates, can affect the current account by influencing the exchange rate and the level of investment.
➡️ Supply-side policies, such as deregulation and liberalization, can affect the current account by increasing the efficiency of production and reducing the cost of imports.
➡️ Protectionist policies, such as tariffs and quotas, can affect the current account by reducing the level of imports and increasing the level of exports.

What is utility in economics and how is it measured?

Utility refers to the satisfaction or happiness that a consumer derives from consuming a good or service. It is a subjective concept and cannot be measured directly. However, economists use the concept of utils to measure utility. Utils are hypothetical units of satisfaction that are used to compare the utility derived from different goods or services.

How does the law of diminishing marginal utility affect consumer behavior?

The law of diminishing marginal utility states that as a consumer consumes more and more of a good or service, the additional satisfaction or utility derived from each additional unit of the good or service decreases. This means that consumers are willing to pay less for each additional unit of the good or service. As a result, consumers tend to buy less of a good or service as its price increases.

How does the concept of utility maximization help explain consumer behavior?

The concept of utility maximization suggests that consumers aim to maximize their total utility subject to their budget constraint. This means that consumers allocate their income among different goods and services in a way that maximizes their overall satisfaction. Consumers will continue to consume a good or service until the marginal utility of the last unit consumed is equal to its price. This helps explain why consumers may choose to buy more of a cheaper good or service, even if it provides less utility than a more expensive alternative.

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